Positive And Negative Reinforcements
Adopting a dog is also being prepared to provide training. There are varieties of methods to conduct dog training. In fact, there are as many dog-training methods as there are dog trainers. Each will not agree on training approaches and specifics. Include the D I Y training that many dog owners do and the methods are multiplied.
All dog-training methods, no matter the techniques used fall basically into two categories, the positive reinforcement, and the negative reinforcement.
Positive reinforcement is a very old philosophy based on the premise that reinforcing good behaviour is more pleasant to both the dog and the owner aside from not resulting into developing undesirable characteristics in the dog. Positive reinforcement creates trust. It creates a structure for more definitive behaviour rewarded when pleasant responses are achieved.
It motivates dogs to obey more readily and more eager to learn. The results of positive reinforcement are more permanent and lessen aggressive behaviour. For both people and animals, chemicals are released in the brain creating pleasant associations when positive reinforcement is used. Basically, positive reinforcement is rewarding a dog whether by food, by a hug and embrace, and by play.
On the other hand, negative reinforcement is an older technique that basically uses punishment based on the idea that the dog will remember better what it is not supposed to do when it will be potentially be harmed as a result. Negative reinforcement uses yelling, choke chains, confinement, direct harm, electric shock, and electric fences.
Negative reinforcement has its appropriate uses. For the most part though, negative reinforcement results to either fear or aggressiveness.
Dogs for the most part are treated like members of the family. They offer semblances of love and are loved in return, they trust and are trusted, and they are loyal. Because of these qualities, the popularity of positive reinforcement in dog training grew, one of the reasons is that it is never pleasant to have an animal in the house that only obey based on fear.
The dog need to fear its owner from time to time, but mostly it does not create very strong bonds. It is often more recommended to build that bond out of mutual love, not fear.
Recent researches by animal behaviourists also showed that animals do not really learn much from negative treatments. It obeys true but often, only to the extent that it is avoiding the pain that results. Another danger to negative reinforcement is that once the dog owner starts using pain as a deterrent for bad behaviour, the temptation to resort to harm often gets stronger especially when the dog refuses as dogs do from time to time.
It also makes the dog more melancholic and lethargic.
There are different dog type and breeds. Different dogs respond differently. While patience in dog training is a must, positive reinforcement does not totally undermines the negative.
Sometimes, negative reinforcement has to be used.
If ever a negative reinforcement is required the ratio of use is about 99:1 where you apply 99% of positive reinforcement in training the dog.